i haven't seen any - i usually just consult the highway traffic act if i need to know something for sure, or just need to get to sleep in a hurry
there are no provinces that will allow you, regardless of age or the type of license you have, to go helmetless. DOT is the only certification recognized.
turn signals are required on motorcycles that came from the factory equipped with them. some jurisdictions have grandfather clauses for bikes that did not come with turn signals, allowing you to use hand signals.
a bike must have a functional headlight (only grandfather clause is it doesn't have to run in daytime if it was not originally designed to - some older model bikes have a switch), horn and brake lights.
insurance on all vehicles is mandatory throughout canada.
with regard to specific lighting colours, a flashing blue light designates snow removal equipment in ontario, a flashing orange light designates the same in alberta. flashing red lights are used by emergency services, so likely would not be acceptable in any jurisdiction, and a strobing white light is often used on school buses in ontario.
headlight modulators, as long as they do not cause the light to turn completely off ("flashing"), seem to be legal. i have seen a few of them.
if i think of anything else, i'll add it!